|The Baroque was the period of the greatest prosperity of glass production in the Lusatian Mountains. However, compared to the previous years, the core of Baroque production was mainly glass decorate. In addition to glass painting and cutting, engraving became a widely applied method. During the Baroque period, the glass decorators from Northern Bohemia were amongst the-then glass masters who were most sought out for their exquisite abilities. However, the success of Bohemian Baroque glass-making was principally contributed to by advanced trading in glass products. The center for sales was located in this region in the areas surrounding the contemporary towns of Kamenický Šenov and Nový Bor. From this site Czech glass was exported to nearly all of Europe, and penetrated even the remote markets of America and the Orient.
In the 17th century primary glass-working was separated from glass refining. Local craftsmen obtained glass from glassworks and decorated it in their own home workshops. This type of production supported the people living in mountain villages whose modest incomes otherwise depended exclusively on agriculture. In the second half of the 17th century the first guild association of glass refiners was established, receiving the support of the local manorial nobility. At the same time, knowledge of a new type of high-quality clear glass material known as Czech crystal was spreading. Czech crystal is a perfect material for refining by means of cutting and engraving with the aid of rotating copper wheels. Around the year 1700, engraved glass from Northern Bohemia achieved a level of extraordinary quality which was retained, along with high sales, throughout the entire first half of the 18th century.
Among Baroque glassworks the most important was the Rollhütte Shop on the southern slope of Jedlová (774 m above sea level), which had been run by Jan Kašpar Kittel since about 1724. Managed by this highly-qualified owner, this profitable glass factory contributed mainly to the development of glass trading. Another glass factory located in Juliovka at Mařenice was founded in 1687 by Julius Franz, the owner of the Zákupy estate and the Duke of Saxon-Lauenburg. This was one of the first glass factories to melt Czech crystal, and perhaps also ruby glass decorated with gold. During the 18th century, glass-making activities brought about the loss of timber in local forests, which was reflected in higher prices for wood. This was why a majority of glassworks ceased to exist during the same time period, and the production of glass was oriented on the refining of glass imported from other parts of Bohemia and Moravia, the only exceptions being the glassworks in Horní Chřibská and a newly-founded shop that was later called Nová huť (New Glassworks). The latter was established in 1750 by the glassmaker Jan Kryštof Müller in the middle of a forest north of Svor, on the site of a village that still bears the same name; i.e. Nová huť. Only these two glass factories continued to work until the second half of the 19th century when wood, whose stock in this region was exhausted, was replaced by coal.
The organisation of trade in glass was absolutely unique at that time. Traditional trading missions made by individuals were ousted by new commercial methods as richer farmers and craftsmen from foothill villages began to establish business associations called 'companies' as early as the first half of the 18th century. Being mutually bound by contract, they were able to organise and finance the purchase and transportation of raw materials more effectively. They further arranged for the refining of glass with local craftsmen who, as a rule, worked strictly according to a customer's requirements. The companies then transported finished products to foreign markets where they were sold. These business companies also established branches called 'factories' in a majority of important cities and ports in Europe and America. This type of organised business was first conducted from the villages around Polevsko, whose number was enlarged in 1757 with the village of Nový Bor, originally called Haida, and promoted in that same year to the status of a town. Most companies operated until the 19th century and made this part of the country and the Czech glass industry famous around the world.
The prosperity of Baroque glass making is further evidenced by a diverse range of production specialities. In the mid-18th century a mirror shop was opened under the orchestration of Count Josef Kinský in his Sloupy dominion. The quality of these manufactured mirrors soon matched that of the mirrors made in Paris and Venice. Another production branch developed in this region since the 18th century was the production of chandeliers, which rose to fame almost immediately. This traditional production has been maintained in the region until current times. The second half of the 18th century was marked by a crisis mainly caused by a change in customers' tastes connected with the onset of Classicism, a diminishing interest in engraved glass, the discovery of English cut lead crystal, and the failure of local businessmen to conform to new trends. This unfortunate situation was further aggravated by the blockade of overseas markets during Napoleon's wars. The best craftsmen were leaving for abroad, leaving behind others to make mostly the cheap glass affordable for ordinary - mainly village - customers. Only a small group of those who stayed behind still worked on valuable orders for gold-painted frosted glass for Oriental markets.